الوصية الشرعية

Islamic Will and Testament

روى البخاري (2738) ومسلم (1627) عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ : ( مَا حَقُّ امْرِئٍ مُسْلِمٍ لَهُ شَيْءٌ يُوصِي فِيهِ يَبِيتُ لَيْلَتَيْنِ إِلَّا وَوَصِيَّتُهُ مَكْتُوبَةٌ عِنْدَهُ )

Al-Bukhaari (2738) and Muslim (1627) narrated from ‘Abd-Allah ibn ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “It is not right for a Muslim man who has anything that he wants to bequeath, to stay for more than two nights without having his will written with him.” 


قال النووي رحمه الله : "فيه الْحَثّ عَلَى الْوَصِيَّة ، وَقَدْ أَجْمَعَ الْمُسْلِمُونَ عَلَى الْأَمْر بِهَا ، لَكِنَّ مَذْهَبنَا وَمَذْهَب الْجَمَاهِير أَنَّهَا مَنْدُوبَة لَا وَاجِبَة . وَقَالَ دَاوُدُ وَغَيْره مِنْ أَهْل الظَّاهِر : هِيَ وَاجِبَة ؛ لِهَذَا الْحَدِيث ، وَلَا دَلَالَة لَهُمْ فِيهِ ، فَلَيْسَ فِيهِ تَصْرِيح بِإِيجَابِهَا ، لَكِنْ إِنْ كَانَ عَلَى الْإِنْسَان دَيْن أَوْ حَقّ أَوْ عِنْده وَدِيعَة وَنَحْوهَا لَزِمَهُ الْإِيصَاء بِذَلِكَ . قَالَ الشَّافِعِيّ رَحِمَهُ اللَّه : مَعْنَى الْحَدِيث : مَا الْحَزْم وَالِاحْتِيَاط لِلْمُسْلِمِ إِلَّا أَنْ تَكُون وَصِيَّته مَكْتُوبَة عِنْده .  وَيُسْتَحَبّ تَعْجِيلهَا ، وَأَنْ يَكْتُبهَا فِي صِحَّته ، وَيُشْهِد عَلَيْهِ فِيهَا ، وَيَكْتُب فِيهَا مَا يَحْتَاج إِلَيْهِ ، فَإِنْ تَجَدَّدَ لَهُ أَمْر يَحْتَاج إِلَى الْوَصِيَّة بِهِ أَلْحَقَهُ بِهَا . قَالُوا : وَلَا يُكَلَّف أَنْ يَكْتُب كُلّ يَوْم مُحَقَّرَات الْمُعَامَلَات وَجُزْئِيَّات الْأُمُور الْمُتَكَرِّرَة" انتهى

 

Al-Nawawi (may Allah have mercy on him) said: In this hadeeth there is encouragement to make a will, and the Muslims are unanimously agreed that it is enjoined, but our view and the view of the majority is that it is recommended and not obligatory. Dawood and other literalists said: It is obligatory, because of this hadeeth, but they have no evidence to that effect. It does not clearly state that it is obligatory, but if a person owes a debt or is owed something or has something deposited with him for safekeeping and so on, then he has to leave instructions concerning it. Al-Shaafa‘i (may Allah have mercy on him) said: The meaning of the hadeeth is: It is more appropriate for the Muslim to have his will written with him, and it is mustahabb to do it sooner rather than later, and to write it when he is in good health and to have it witnessed; he should write in it what he needs, and if something new comes up that needs a will, he should add it to it. They said: He does not have to write down every day the minor matters and transactions that may happen on a daily basis. End quote. 



 - الوصية نوعان
وصية واجبة : وهي الوصية ببيان ما عليه وما له من حقوق ، كدين أو قرض أو أمانات مودعة عنده ، أو حقوق له في ذمم الناس ، فالوصية هنا واجبة لحفظ ماله ، وبراءة ذمته
ووصية مستحبة : وهي التبرع المحض ، كوصية الإنسان بعد موته في ماله بالثلث فأقل ، لقريب غير وارث ، أو لغيره ، أو الوصية في أعمال البر

من الصدقة على الفقراء والمساكين أو في وجوه الخير . ينظر : "فتاوى اللجنة الدائمة" (16/264)
 

وللإنسان أن يوصي أهله ببعض الأمور المتعلقة بجنازته ، كمن يغسله ومن يصلي عليه ونحو ذلك ، وأن يوصيهم بترك البدع والمحدثات ، وتجنب

النياحة وغير ذلك من المنهيات ، لا سيما إذا كان يعلم من حالهم أنهم ربما فعلوا شيئا من ذلك.  ويدل لذلك ما رواه مسلم (121) أن عمرو بن العاص رضي الله عنه قال وهو في سياق الموت : (فَإِذَا أَنَا مُتُّ فَلَا تَصْحَبْنِي نَائِحَةٌ وَلَا نَارٌ)

 

Wills are of two types: 

  • Obligatory will, in which a person explains what he owes and what is owed to him of rights, such as a debt, loan and items entrusted to his care; or rights that he is owed by other people.  In this case the will is obligatory to protect his wealth and to absolve himself of responsibility.

  • Recommended will, which is purely voluntary, such as a will in which a man bequeaths one third or less of his wealth to a relative who is not an heir, or to someone else; or a will giving instructions concerning righteous deeds of charity to the poor and needy, or other good causes. See: Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah, 16/264. 

 

A man may give instructions to his family with regard to matters having to do with his funeral, such as who will wash him, who will offer the prayer for him and so on. He can also instruct them to refrain from bid‘ahs and innovated matters, and to avoid wailing and other forbidden actions, especially if he knows that they might do some of these things. 

This is indicated in the report narrated by Muslim (121), according to which ‘Amr ibn al-‘Aas (may Allah be pleased with him) said when he was dying: If I die, do not let any wailing woman or fire accompany me. 


وروى الترمذي (986) وابن ماجه (1476) عَنْ حُذَيْفَةَ بْنِ الْيَمَانِ رضي الله عنه قَالَ : (إِذَا مِتُّ فَلَا تُؤْذِنُوا بِي ، إِنِّي أَخَافُ أَنْ يَكُونَ نَعْيًا ، فَإِنِّي سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَنْهَى عَنْ النَّعْيِ) والحديث حسنه الألباني في صحيح الترمذي
وروى أحمد (10141) عَنِ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ رضي الله عنه قَالَ : (إِذَا مُتُّ فَلَا تَضْرِبُوا عَلَيَّ فُسْطَاطًا ، وَلَا تَتْبَعُونِي بِنَارٍ ، وَأَسْرِعُوا بِي إِلَى رَبِّي ، فَإِنِّي سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُولُ : إِذَا وُضِعَ الْعَبْدُ أَوْ الرَّجُلُ الصَّالِحُ عَلَى سَرِيرِهِ قَالَ : قَدِّمُونِي قَدِّمُونِي ، وَإِذَا وُضِعَ الرَّجُلُ السَّوْءُ قَالَ : وَيْلَكُمْ أَيْنَ تَذْهَبُونَ بِي) والحديث حسنه شعيب الأرنؤوط في تحقيق المسند

 

And al-Tirmidhi (986) and Ibn Maajah (1476) narrated that Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman (may Allah be pleased with him) said: If I die, do not inform anyone of it, for I am afraid that that would be a public death announcement. I heard the Messenger of Allaah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) forbidding making public death announcements. This hadeeth was classed as hasan by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi. 

Ahmad (10141) narrated that Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) said: If I die, do not set up a tent over me, and do not follow me with fire; hasten to send me to my Lord, for I heard the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) say: “When the slave or righteous man is placed on his bier, he says: Take me forward, take me forward. But when the bad man is placed on his bier, he says: Woe to you, where are you taking me?”

This hadeeth was classed as hasan by Shu‘ayb al-Arna’oot in Tahqeeq al-Musnad. 

 


وروى الحاكم في المستدرك (1409) أن قيس بن عاصم رضي الله عنه أوصاهم عند موته فقال : (إذا أنا مت فلا تنوحوا علي فإن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لم ينح عليه) قال الحاكم : هذا حديث صحيح الإسناد ولم يخرجاه . وقال الذهبي في التلخيص : صحيح .
فهذا وغيره يدل على مشروعية الوصية ببعض الأمور المتعلقة بالجنازة أو بالتحذير من النياحة ونحوها .

 

Al-Haakim narrated in al-Mustadrak (1409) that Qays ibn ‘Aasim (may Allah be pleased with him) left instructions when he died saying: If I die, do not wail over me, for there was no wailing over the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him). Al-Haakim said: This is a hadeeth with a saheeh isnaad, although they [al-Bukhaari and Muslim] did not narrate it. Al-Dhahabi said in al-Talkhees: It is saheeh. 

This and other reports indicate that it is prescribed to make a will concerning some matters having to do with the funeral or warning against wailing, and so on. 

 

May Allah guide all of us to the right path and the straightway and grant us a good end. Aameen.

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